ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES

KINDS and  AGREEMENT :
The main kinds of Adjectives are :
->1. Of  quality
->2. Demostrative
->3. Distributive
->4. quantitative
->5. interrogative
->6. possessive
Agreement :
Adjectives in English have only one form, which is used with singular and plural, masculine and femine nouns :
->a good boy, -> good boys
->a good  girl, -> good girls
The only  exceptions are demonstrative adjectives this and that which change to these and those before plural nouns :
->this cat ;->these cats; ->that man; ->those men
Position of adjectives and use of “and”
Adjectives in English usually come before their nouns:
->a big town  ->a blue car ->an interesting book
When there are two or more adjectives before a noun they
not usually separated by and except when the last two are
adjectives of color :
->a big square box ; ->a tall young man
->six yellow roses ; ->a black and white cap
->a red, white and blue flag
=>>Adjectives of quality, however can be placed after the verbs be, seem, appear, look and is then placed between the last
two adjectives :
->The house looked large and inconvenient.
->The weather was cold, wet and windy.


COMPARISON

There are three degrees of comparison :
1. Positive -> dark;tall;useful
2. Comparative->darker;taller;more useful
3. Superlative ->the darkest;the tallest;the most useful
notes :    =>>One-syllable adjectives form their comparative and    superlative  adding  er and est to the positive form :    =>> bright;brighter;the brightest    =>>new;newer;the newest
=>>Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules.Those ending in ful usually take more and the most :->doubtful;more doubtful; the most doubtful    ->careful;more careful;the most careful
Those ending in er, y or ly usually add  er, est :    ->pretty ;prettier;the pretiest
->holy;holier;the holiest
->clever;cleverer;the cleverest
Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting more and the most before the positive :
->interesting; more interesting;the most interesting    frightening   more frightening   the most frightening
irregular comparisons :
->good;better;the best
->bad;worse;the worst
->little;less;the least
->many;more;the most
->much;more,the most
->far;further;the furthest ( of distance and time )    ->far;farther;the farthest ( distance only )
->old;older;the older ( of people and things )
->old;elder;the eldest ( of people )
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH  COMPARISONS :
positive:
->as ….  as
->not as ……  as
->not so …..   as
->1. A boy of sixteen  is often as tall as his father.    ->2. Your coffee is not as/ so good as the coffee my mother makes.
=>>Comparative : We use “than”
->a. The new tower blocks are much higher than the old  buildings
->b. He makes fewer mistakes than you ( do ).
=>>Superlative  : the ….   in / of comparison of three or more       people / things.
->a. This is  the oldest theatre in London.
->b. Semeru is the highest mountain in East Java.
notes :
We can also use a relative clause. A perfect tense is
especially useful.
->1. It/This is the least attractive of all the houses I have seen.
->2. It/This the best beer that I  have ever drunk.
->3. It/This is the most exciting book (that) I have ever read.
->4. It/This was the worst film that I had ever seen.
->5. He is the kindest man that I have ever met.
->6. It was the most worrying day he had ever spent.
We can express the same idea with never and a =>>comaprative :
->1. I have never drunk  better beer.
->2. I have never met a kinder man.
->3. He had never spent a more worrying day.

=>>>Parallel increase : is expressed by
->The +  Comparative …… The + Comparative
->House  Agent  : Do you want a big house?
->Wife   : the bigger the better
->Husband  : I don’t agreee. The smaller the house the    less it will cost.
=>>Gradual increase or decrease  is expressed by two
comparatives  joined by and :
->1. The weather is geting colder and colder.
->2. He become less and less interested.
Adjectives of quality used as nouns
good/bad, poor/rich, healthy/sick, young/old, living/dead can    be preceeded by the and used as nouns. This nouns represent
a class of person.
->1. The poor = poor people
= The poor are often generous to each other.
->2. The dead = dead people
= After the battle they buried the dead.
Adjectives of  quality  with pronoun one / ones
1.  I like those pencils, I’ll take a blue one.
2.  Small bananas are often better than big ones.

ADJECTIVE of QUANTITATIVE:=>>

Much , many , few, little
We use  Much and  Little with Uncountable Noun:
For example :=>>
->1. I haven’t much time to do it.
->2. Have you little money in your pocket?
->3. We still have little energy.
->4. She hasn’t much luck.
A lot of, lot of, plenty of
We use a lot of / lots of / plenty of  with UN or CN Noun
For Example :=>>
->1. John had a lot of luck.
->2. There are a lot of people here.
->3. I have lots of time.
->4. She has a lot of books.
->5. She has plenty of money.
->6. I have plenty of ideas.
We use MUCH and Many mainly in Negative and questions.
->1. I did  not spend much money.
->2. Do you have many friends?
In positive sentences it is usually better to use a lot ( of )
->1. We spent a lot of money.
->2. There has been a lot of rain recently.
But we use too much and so much in positive sentence.    I can’t drink this tea.  There is too much sugar in it.

=>>>little / a little  / few / a few

->>>Little and few  are negative ideas: ( not much/ enough ).
->1. Hurry up! There is little time.
->2. He’s not popular. He has few friends.
We often use very before little / few.
->1. There is very little time.
->2. He has very few friends.

->>>A few / a little are more positive ideas: ( some )    ->1. Let’s go and have a cup of coffee.
We have a little time before the train leaves.        ->2. I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends here.    ->3. A few days ago I saw John here.
Only a few and only a little  have a negative meaning :
->1. Hurry up ! We only have a little time.
->2. The town was very small. There were only a few houses.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES:=>>

1. That / this / these / those as Adjectives :
->this / that  followed by singular noun.
<>this book ,<> this boy, <>this girl, <>this pencil
<>that man , <>that car, <>that student,<> that bottle
=>>This is used to indicate one Noun which is near from
=>>That is used to indicate  one Noun which is far from us.
=>>these / those  followed by plural nouns.
<>these books ,<> these boys,<> these girls, <>these pencils;<>those men ,<> those cars,<> those students, those bottles
->These is used to indicate  Nouns which are near from us.
->Those is used to indicate  Nouns which are far from us.
this / that / these / those used as pronouns
For example :
1. This is my brother; Those are Tom’s brothers.
2. This is my umbrella; That is  yours.
3. These are the old classrooms; Those are the new ones.
4. What is that. That is a cat.

->this / these, that / those used with one / ones
=>>When there is some idea of comparison or selection, the pronoun one/ ones is often placed after these demonstratives
->1. This chair is too low. I’ll sit in that (one).
->2. Which one do you like? I like this (one ) best.
->3. I like this blue one /  these blue ones.

DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES:->
+>>>1.Each, every, everyone, everybody, everything    For example :
->1. Each student gets two English books from me.
->2. Every student gets two English books from me.
->3. Each ( student ) gets two English books from me.
->4. Everybody  knows English well.
->5. Everyone speaks Indonesian well enough.
->6. Everything is running well.
->7. Nobody  has ever given me a free ticket.
notes :    =>                        =>>Everyone / everybody takes a sigular verb with possessive
adjective her / his in formal English.
=>>In ordinary conversation
the plural forms they, them and their are used:
->Each can be adjective /  pronoun.
->Every has a function as adjective.

=>>2 BOTH, EITHER, NEITHER

both means  one and the other. It takes a plural verb.
->A. Both banks of river were covered in bush.
->B. She has two sons. Both are taller than she is.
->C. Both English and Japanese are taught in this school.
=>>Neither means not one not the other. It takes a singular verb.
->A. Neither of them  drinks coffee.
->B. Neither English nor Mathematics is not important for me.
=>>Either means  anyone of two. It takes a singular verb.
->A. Either English or Japanese is taught in our school.
->B. Either John or Ali is my student.

=>>ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITATIVE

3. Some, any, no and none
some and any  are used before before plural or uncountable nouns.
SOME and ANY compared
->1. Would you like some biscuits?
->2. I took some photos.
->3. They took some honey. ( affirmative )
->4. Can I have some coffee ( “yes” is expected)    ->5. Can you give me some information about Kuta beach?
->6. Could you do some typing for me?
->7. I haven’t any matches . ( negative )
->8. I have hardly any time. ( almost negative )
->9. I don’t think there is any patrol in the tank.( expression of doubt )
->10. If you have any time, let me know. ( after if )
=>>Any can mean “practically every” but  no particular one.
->11. Any book about riding will tell you how to saddle a horse.
->12. Any dictionary will give you the meaning of these words.
Anyone / anybody / anything can also mean practically every
but no particular one.
->13. Ask anyone where the house is.
->14. Anyone will tell you where the house is.
->15. What would you like to drink? Oh, anything.
=>>NO and NONE
->NO ( adjective ), ->NONE ( pronoun ) can be used with
affirmative verbs to express a negative.
->I have no apples = I haven’t any apples.
->Tom has none = Tom hasn’t any.
->I took no photos =  I didn’t take any photos.

=>>4. someone, somebody,something, anyone anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing
->1. Nobody  has ever given me a free ticket.
->2. Someone is coming here.
->3. No one knows where I live.
->4. Nothing is important to talk about.
->5. Anyone has a pencil.
->6. Somebody loves you.
->7. I don’t want to waste anyone’s time.
->8. Is it somebody’s seat?
notes :
someone, somebody,something, anyone, anybody,
anything, no one, nobody, nothing  take singular VERB and they can be possessive.

=>>5.Else can be placed after someone, anybody , nothing else, etc
someone/somebody/something /anyone/anybody/anything
no one/nobody/nothing/everyone/everybody/everything and
the adverbs somewhere/anywhere/everywhere/nowhere can
be followed by else.
someone else = someother person.
anyone else = any other person
nowhere else = to no other place
someone / somebody / anyone / any body / no one / nobody + else  can be posssessive:
->1. I took someone’s else coat.
->2. Was anyone else’s luggage opened?
->3. Noone else’s luggage was opened.

=>6. other / another / others / the other ( s )
->1. Now I have only one English book. Tomorrow I will buy another.
->2. My sister studies English language. Next Year she will study others / other languages.
->3. Johan has two cars at home. Next month he will buy three     others / some others / many others, etc
->4. I have two English books. One of them is on the table.The other is in my bag.
->5. I have three English books. One of them is on the table.    The others is in my bag.

=>>>one … another / other ( s )
some … Other / others
->1. One student suggested a play, another ( student ) /    other students wanted a concert.
->2.Some tourists / some of the tourists went on the beach;others explored the town.

=>>Some + singular noun + or other
“Some” here shows that the speaker doesn’t know anything about the person or thing. or other can be added emphasize that the speaker isn’t very interested.    He is taking some exam or other. ( the speaker probablythinks exams are foolish )
->What’s that noise in the streets? It’s probably some     demonstration or other.


->>one another and each other

Both  one another and each other can be used of two or more, but one another is frequently prefered when there are more than two.
->1. Tom and Anita looked at each other.
->2. We have to help one another.


=>> INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES:=>> What,Which

->1.What book do you want to buy?
->2.Which book is yours?

=>>POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES:=>> her, your, his, my, their, our.
->My book is good but your book is bad.
->Her house is far from here.
->His car is new.

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