is  a verb  which has function as noun.
FORM   V1 ing
For example :  reading, singing, drinking, writing,etc
Gerund is used after certain verbs :
stop, enjoy, dislike, admit, consider, regret,
miss, finish, mind, imagine, deny, avoid,  involve, postpone,delay,suggest,practice,risk
give up, go on, put off, keep on
For Example :
1. Stop talking!
2. I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished cleaning apartment.
3. I don’t miss working late every night.
4. Have you ever considered going to live in another country?
5. I can’t imagine George riding a motorcycle.
6. When I am on vacation. I enjoy not having to get up early.
7. Are you going  to give up smoking?
8. He kept on interrupting me when I  was speaking.
9. I enjoy dancing.
10. Would you mind closing the door?
11. Jim suggested going to the movie.
12. He admitted stealing ( or having stolen ) the money.
13. They now regretted getting ( or having gotten ) married.
Notes  : admit, deny, regret, and suggest
You can also use  a   that  ….. structure
For example :
1. He denied that he had stolen the money.( denied stealing )
2. Jill suggested that we go to the movies.( suggested going )
1. It’s no use worrying about it. There’s nothing you can do.
2. It’s no use trying to persuade me.  You won’t succeed.


1. There ‘s no point in buying a car if you don’t want to drive it.

2. There’s no point in waiting, so we went.

1. My house is  a  short walk from here. It’s not worth taking taxi.

2. It was  so late when we got home. It was not worth  going to bed.

3. Do you think this book is worth reading ?

4. You should go and see that movie. It’s really worth seeing.
1. I had difficulty finding a place to live.
2. Did you have any trouble getting a visa?
3. People often have great difficulty reading my writing.
4. I’m sure you’ll have no difficulty passing the exam.
5. He’s shy. He has difficulty in talking to people.
Remember that we say “difficulty” not difficulties “trouble” not troubles.
1. It’s a waste of time  reading that book.
2. It’s a waste of money buying thing you don’t need.
SPEND / WASTE ( time )
1. I spent hours trying to repair the clock.
2. I waste a lot of time day dreaming.
We use go … ing for a number of activities ( especially sport )
->go shopping;
->go fishing
->go climbing;
->go riding
->go swimming;
->go sightseeing
->go sailing;
-> go skiing
->1. How often do you go swimming ?
->2. I am going skiing next year.
->3. I have to go shopping this morning.
->4. I’ve never been sailing.

We can use Gerund after preposition.
For Example :
1.  Has Tom succeeded in finding a job yet ?

2. Are you thinking of / about buying a house ?

3. I’ve always dreamed of being rich.

4. She doesn’t approve of smoking.

5. I am looking foward to meeting her.

6. She insisted on buying me a cup of cofffee.

7. We decided against moving to California.

8. He apologized for keeping me waiting.

9. They accused me of telling lies.

10. Did they suspect the man of being a spy.

11. I congratuled Ann on passing the exam.

12. What prevented him from coming here?

13. He stopped me from leaving the building.

14. I thank her for being so helpful.

15.Please forgive me for being late.
These VERBS are followed by infinitive with to:
agree,  offer, decide, appear, forget, need
refuse, attempt, plan, seem, learn ( how ) , mean        promise, manage, arrange, pretend, dare, fail,hope, threaten, afford, tend
For Example  :
1. It was late, so we decided to take a taxi home.
2. I like Jim, but I think he tends to talk too much.
3. How old were you when you learned to drive?
4. They agreed to lend me some money.
5. He is lazy. He needs to work harder.
6. I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to hurt you.
7. We decide not to go out because of the weather.
8. She pretended not to see me.
Notes : After these VERBS you can use question    word.
ask , decide, know, remember, forget, explain,    understand
For example :
1. We asked how to get to the station.
2. Have you decided where to go for your vacation.
3. Tom explain how to change the tire on the car.
4. I don’r know whether to go to the party or not.


want, ask, expect, help, would like, would prefer
1. I asked to see the manager.
2. We expected to be late.
3. He would like to come.
4. I asked Tom to help me.
5. We expected him to be late.
6. He would like me to come.
7. He helps me to study English.
8. He helps me study English.
Note : help can be followed by infinitive without to.
tell, remind, force, enable, persuade. order,
order, warn, invite, teach ( how ), get ( persuade)
For example :
1. Remind me to call Ann tomorrow.
2. He warn me not to touch anything.
3. I got Jack to fix my car.
4. Who taught you how to drive.
Notes :  make and let are always followed by infinitive without to.

1. They made me do it.
2. Tom let me drive his car yesterday.
These words can be followed by GERUND or INFINITIVE :
like, hate, can’t bear, love, can’t stand
1. I like getting up early.
2. I love meeting people.
3. I hate washing dishes.
4. She can’t stand being alone.
5. He can’t bear living in the city.
1. I like to get up early.
2. I love to meet people.
3. I hate to wash dishes.
4. She can’t stand to be alone.
5. He can’t bear to live in the city.

WE use infinitive after Would like, would prefer, would love

1.  Would you prefer to have dinner now or later ?
2. I’d love to be able to travel around the world.
3. I would like to play tennis today.

Would like, would prefer, would love   can be used for

unfulfiilled hope
Form : S + would like + have +V3
1. I would like to have done something.
I regret that I didn’t or couldn’t do something.
2. We would like to have taken a vacation.
I regret that I didn’t  take a vacation.
3. I would love to have gone to the party.
I didn’t go to the party.


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