ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES

KINDS and AGREEMENT :

The main kinds of Adjectives are :

1. of quality
2. demonstrative
3. distributive
4. quantitative
5. interrogative
6. possessive

Agreement :
Adjectives in English have only one form, which is used with
singular and plural, masculine and famine nouns :

a good boy, good boys
a good girl, good girls

The only exceptions are demonstrative adjectives this and
that which change to these and those before plural nouns :

this cat                     these cats
that man                 those men

Position of adjectives and use of and

Adjectives in English usually come before their nouns :
a big town ,a blue car, an interesting book
When there are two or more adjectives before a noun they
not usually separated by and except when the last two are
adjectives of color :

a big square box, a tall young man
six yellow roses ,a black and white cap
a red, white and blue flag

Adjectives of quality, however can be placed after the verbs
be, seem, appear, look and is then placed between the last
two adjectives :

The house looked large and inconvenient.
The weather was cold, wet and windy.

COMPARISON

There are three degrees of comparison :

1. Positive dark tall useful
2. Comparative darker taller more useful
3. Superlative the darkest the tallest the most useful

notes :

One-syllable adjectives form their comparative and
superlative adding er and est to the positive form :

bright brighter the brightest
new newer the newest

Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the
above rules.
Those ending in ful usually take more and the most :

doubtful more doubtful the most doubtful
careful more careful the most careful
Those ending in er, y or ly usually add er, est :
pretty   prettier  the prettiest
holy       holier      the holiest
clever   cleverer   the cleverest

Adjectives of three or more syllables to form their
comparative and superlative by putting more and
the most before the positive :

interesting    more interesting      the most interesting
frightening   more frightening      the most frightening

irregular comparisons :

good      better        the best
bad        worse         the worst
little     less             the least
many    more          the most
much    more          the most
far          further     the furthest ( of distance and time )
farther  the farthest ( distance only )
old           older          the older ( of people and things )
                elder          the eldest ( of people )

CONSTRUCTIONS WITH COMPARISONS :

positive :

as …… as
not as …… as
not so ….. as

1. A boy of sixteen is often as tall as his father.
2. Your coffee is not as/ so good as the coffee my
mother makes.

Comparative : We use “than”

a. The new tower blocks are much higher than the old buildings
b. He makes fewer mistakes than you ( do ).

Superlative : the …. in / of comparison of three or more people / things.

a. This is the oldest theatre in London.
b. Semeru is the highest mountain in East Java.

notes :

We can also use a relative clause. A perfect tense is especially useful.

1. It/This is the least attractive of all the houses I have seen.
2. It/This the best beer that I have ever drunk.
3. It/This is the most exciting book (that) I have ever read.
4. It/This was the worst film that I had ever seen.
5. He is the kindest man who I have ever met.
6. It was the most worrying day he had ever spent.

We can express the same idea with never and a comparative :

1. I have never drunk better beer.
2. I have never met a kinder man.
3. He had never spent a more worrying day.

Parallel increase : is expressed by

The + Comparative …… The + Comparative

House Agent  : Do you want a big house?
Wife                   : the bigger the better
Husband          : I don’t agree. The smaller the house the
less it will cost.

Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two
comparatives joined by and :

1. The weather is getting colder and colder.
2 .He become less and less interested.

Adjectives of quality used as nouns

good/bad, poor/rich, healthy/sick, young/old, living/dead can
be preceded by the and used as nouns. This nouns represent
a class of person.

1. The poor people
    The poor are often generous to each other.
2. The dead = dead people
    After the battle they buried the dead.

Adjectives of quality with pronoun one / ones

1. I like those pencils, I’ll take a blue one.
2. Small bananas are often better than big ones.

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