A narrative is a text that tells a story  which entertains the audience. makes audience think about an issue, teaches them a lesson, or excite their emotions.

Narratives can be presented as written or spoken texts. Written narratives often take the form of nove

Narrative text includes:
=>science fiction
=>historical fiction
=>romance novel

Constructing a narrative
The steps for constructing a narrative text area :
=> an orientation in which the narrator tells the audience about who is in the story, when the story is taking place and where an action is happening.

=>a complication that sets off a chain of events that influences  what will happen in the story.

=>a sequence of events where the characters react to the complication.

=>a resolution in which the characters solve the problem created in the complication.

=>a coda that provides a comment or moral based on what has been learned from  the story ( an optional step)

1. Orientation
In this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story, when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on.

2. Complication
This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin a chain  of events. These events will affect one or more of the characters. The complication is the trigger.

3. Sequence of events

This is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the complication. It includes their feelings and what they do. The events can be told in chronological order ( the order in which they happen ) or with flashbacks. The audience is given the narrator’s point of view.

4. Resolution

In this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or the problem is solved.


Once upon a time Sindureja  reigned in East Java. He had a prime minister named Sidapaksa. Sidapakasa had a beautiful wife. Sidapaksa loved his wife deeply. They lived in a complete happiness. However, Sidapaksa’s mother didn’t like her daughter in law. Each day she tried to a way to separate Sidapaksa from his wife. One day  King Sindureja asked Sidapaksa to search for the bud of  magic flowers on Mount Ijen. It was a long and dangerous journey. The assignment from the king was so important and urgent. Sidapaksa had to leave his pregnant wife. Not long afterwards, a son was born. The baby’s birth gave too much happiness for the young mother. However, one day while this young mother was bathing, her evil mother in law threw the baby into the river. Knowing that her baby disappeared, the young mother was very sad. She  could neither eat nor sleep. She became very ill. Two years passed and Sidapaksa returned from his journey. He succeeded in doing his duty. Just as he was about to enter his house, her mother told him that his wife had thrown their baby into river. Sidapaksa believed his mother’s story. He was too angry to use his common sense. He drew his kris  and approach his wife who was lying weak on her bed. Ah, wicked woman. Tell me why you  threw our new-born child into the river. Tell me! He said in a rough and angry voice. “Oh, my dearest husband I am innocent I love you, and our baby. I didn’t kill our child. If you don’t believe me carry me to the river. I will prove that I didn’t do it,” replied his wife calmly. Sidapaksa took her wife to the edge of the river. Suddenly his wife leaped up and threw herself into the river. “Oh, my God! How will I know who killed my child? Moaned Sidapaksa. Then he looked down at the water. Suddenly two pairs of white flower buds appeared, one larger and taller than the other. A sweet fragrance came from them.
Sidapaksa , look here! Beside me is our child. He himself will tell you who drowned him,” the taller one spoke. “Father, my mother is innocent”. Grandmother threw me into the river. Now I’m happy because my beloved mother has come with me, “the smaller one spoke. Then, two flowers vanished into the water. They left the fragrance behind. Since then , People has used Banyuwangi as the name of city. Banyu means water and wangi  means fregrant.


A long time ago there was a poor farmer. He lived in a small bamboo hut near his rice – field. Other farmer lived in his village too. One day he wanted to catch some fish for his dinner. Just as he caught a big and fresh fish, he heard a voice ” Please don’t kill me, if you  let me live and put me into  your rice field, you will have your dinner on your dinning table.”
“No problem,” said the farmer. When  the farmer went home, he was surprised. His dinner was already set on the table.  Another day he went to rice field and looked for the fish. He heard some voice, I am here near you.” Suddenly there was a beautiful girl beside him, of course he was surprised, ” Are you the fish that I caught yesterday?” Yes, I am . thanks for your help. Would you  marry me? Replied the girl. ” Of course, I would be honored, ” said the farmer happily. “But on one condition. Never tell  our children that I was once a fish , ” said the girl. “I give you my words, ” promised the farmer. Well …. after one year, they got  a son. They called him Sam. One day, the mother asked Sam to bring lunch to his father at rice field. Feeling hungry, the boy ate his father’s lunch on the way. Knowing this, the farmer was angry. You are a naughty boy! You won’t be a good boy because you are actually a son of a fish!”
The boy cried and told his mother what he had heard from his father. The mother went to  rice field and said angrily, ” You have broken your promised. Now you must be punished. Then she left her husband. And suddenly ….. a big tide came and engulfed the village. The flood made a deep vast lake. People called it “Lake Toba” today.


Long ago, there was a farmer in Taiwan who was very greedy. One day he took  some pears to the market for sale. An old monk came up to his cart and asked for one of  the pears.

Why should I give one to you? Asked the farmer. “ You are a lazy good – for nothing.”

“You have hundreds of pears,” answer  the monk. “You will not be able to sell all of them. I ask for only one. Why are you so angry?

Everyone said  that the farmer should give the monk one of the smaller pears. But he still refused.

Finally, a merchant who was there bought a pear and gave it to the monk.

“Thank you sir,” said the monk. “ I am a holy man. I must not be selfish. I invite everyone to eat pears with me.”

Someone asked him, ‘ How can you do that? You have only one pear.”

“wait until I have finished eating this pear,” said the monk. “ I shall then plant one of the seeds and it will quickly grow into a pear tree.”

The monk then dug a  hole a few inches deep and planted a pear seed in it. He asked someone to bring some water with wich to water the seed. Within  a very  short time, the seed grew into a tree. There were  branches and leaves on it, and many  large sweet-smelling pears.

The monk climbed up the tree. He threw down pear after pear to the people waiting below. When all the pears were finished, the monk climbed down to the ground. He took his axe and cut down the tree and carried it away with him.

The farmer was furious but there was nothing he could do. He turned round to look at his cart. All his pears had disappeared! Also an axle of his cart had gone! Then he realized what had happened. The clever monk had used the axle as the trunk of the pear  tree. All the pears which the monk had given away had been taken from his cart.

He rushed the monk, but the monk was nowhere to be seen. However, he found the freshly-cut axle of his cart lying on the ground outside the city gate.

Everyone laughed at him. “It is your own fault for being so greedy,” they said.


One night,  as the poor widow was sleeping restlessly, she heard her husband’s voice – “I have come back to help you”. The widow sat up and looked around. She knew she was dreaming , and in her dream she went outside. A large swan spoke to her with the chief hunter’s voice – “ I know how hard it is  for you”. The widow was happy to hear her husband’s voice, yet sad because she knew it was a dream.

The words stuck her throat so she could not speak. The swan stood in the moonlight and said. “I wish I could be here with you.  “Then it came closer. She could see that many of its feathers were made of gold.  In the moonlight it seemed to be a golden swan. The golden swan said, “ put your hand out and take one of my golden feathers. Use the money for yourself and the children. Go on sleeping, I will return whenever you need  more. “The golden swan said in the voice of the chief Hunter. In the morning you will know this was a special dream. So the widow put the feather beside her bed and  went back to sleep.

She slept so well and so deeply it was as if her husband were still alive. When she woke up, she remember the dream and looked for golden feather. There in its place was money and gold. The woman was very happy and later she went to the village and bought food and clothing. She spent the money carefully and use it for her children and herself.


There was once a simple good villager, who was the father of four boys. He took good care of his children, and worked hard so that they could all live well and happily, with enough to eat everyday, and  a comfortable home in which to live. The sons had a good life because their kind father took such loving care of his family.

This good villager, whose name was Astina ,enjoyed reading the holy stories of Bali. Every evening after his work was finished and all and all his children had been fed and put to bed, Astina  took out his book of holy stories and read them till he felt too tired and went to sleep himself. He believed in the teachings of these holy stories and tried both to understand and to follow them, in order that he might lead an even better life than he was already leading.

However, Astina’s four sons were not like him. They did not follow their father’s kindly ways. Everyday his son’s fought among themselves or with their neighbors, and caused much trouble within their village. This distress Astina much, and he spent many nights wondering how to change the ways of his boys. During these nights  Astina also consulted the holy books of Bali, hoping to learn from them some ways to solve his problem and to stop his children from quarreling.

One evening, his four sons had been especially naughty, and Astina hah had to listen to complaints from several neighbor on his return home after a hard say in the field.

Astina decided to call his children together and to talk seriously to them, Astina asked his sons to sit down. Then he went to the kitchen and brought out the kitchen broom, which was made from the strong veins of the leaves of the coconut palm.

Please, Astina said to his sons, take this broom and try to break it. The youngest tried first, but he could not break the strong broom because the straw were tightly bound together. Then the third son tried, and also failed. Then the second, and finally the eldest, but none could break the broom.

Now, their father said,’I want to show you something. He untied the broom and the straws fell to floor. He picked them up one by one and broke them. ‘The straws of this broom are easily broken when they are not tied together in one bunch’, the kind father told his sons.

We are the same, my sons. One by one , we can be broken. But when we stay together we are strong. If we do live as one family, we will be happy. Let us live as one and be like this broom – close together, strong and happy.

From that day on , the four brothers learned to play and work together without quarreling.