ing  and ed clauses

A clause is part of a sentence. Some clauses begin
with – ing or – ed :

Do you know the woman talking to Tom? [ – ing clause ]
The man injured in the accident was taken to the
hospital [ – ed clause ]

We use – ing clauses to say what someone or something
is doing or was doing at a particular time.

Do you know the girl  talking to Tom?
The police officers investigating the robbers are looking for
three men.
I was awakened by a bell ringing.
Who was that man standing outside?
Can you hear someone singing?

When you are talking about things [ and sometimes people ]
you can use an – ing clause for permanent characteristics :

The street joining the two villages is very narrow.
[ the road joins the two villages ]
I live in a pleasant room overlooking the garden.
[ the room overlooks the garden ]

– ed clauses ‘ have a passive meaning :

The man injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
None of the the people invited to the party can come.
The money stolen in the robbery was never found.
Most of the goods made in this factory are exported.

We often use – ing and – ed clauses after there is / there was , etc

Is there anybody waiting to see me ?
There were some children swimming in the river.
When I arrived, there was a big red car parked outside the house.


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