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What is an exposition?

An exposition is a piece of text that presents one side of an issue. The purpose of the exposition is to persuade the reader or listener by presenting one side of an argument, that is , the case or the case against.

Exposition texts can be in the form of :

1. advertisements

2. spoken arguments

3. editorials

Features of an exposition


An exposition text usually has three sections. The first section introduces the author’s point of view and can preview arguments that may follow in the text. Next comes a series of arguments that aim to convince the audience. The final section is a conclusion that sum up the arguments and reinforces the author’s point of view.


1. An introductory statement

1.1.The author’s point of view is called the thesis of the argument and this is given in the introduction.

1.2. The introduction can include a previews of the arguments that will follow in the next section of the text.

1.3. A question or emotional statement can be used to capture the audience’’ attention.

2. A series of arguments to convince the audienve

2.1. A new paragraph is used for each new argument.

2.2. Each new paragraph begins with a topic sentensce that introduces the argument.

2.3.Details supporting the argument follow the topic sentence.

2. 4ÞEmotive words are used to persuade the audience to believe the author.

3. A conclusion summing up the arguments

4. The author restates his or her thesis ( point of view)

5. A summary of what has been stated in the section above may  be included here.


Why They Turn to the Sea

As the job opportunity is increasing limited on the land, more and more young man  are turning to the sea for a living. Some of them choose to work on a ship only after they have failed to get  a job. However, many young men actually would rather work on the sea than on land. In my opinion, there are several reasons that account for increasing interest in persuing maritime professions.

Firstly,our country is made up of many lands. We are surrounded by water. It is not surprising that many people have growm to love the sea. In order to be able to spend more time near the sea, they decide to work on it.  Many of them spend their whole lives on the water.

Secondly, the many school dropouts in the country as well as those young men who have just finished their education in school are looking for jobs  at the same time. Competition for jobs is therefore great. Many fail to get work in offce or factories, so these people turn to the sea as a last resort.

Thirdly, some young men face problem at home. They want to get as far away from these problems as possible. The sea becomes a popular means of escape.

Finally, young people are naturally advantageous. They love to explore new places. They enjoy the excitement that comes with this. By working on a ship, they are able to travel far and wide. Besides, food and lodging on board the ship are free. Thus , many young men are attracted to maritime profession.


Television is the most popular form of entertainment in any household. But I think Television tends to have a tremendous influence on its viewers.

Firstly, based on the recent research, people of all ages use this medium to entertain themselves for an average of five hours a day.  Of course, constant exposure of TV will influence the viewers’ thinking and attitude. This can be seen from the fact that many criminals are inspired from the scene on TV.

Secondly, people can be  affected by constant watching television. This is due to the fact that they less in physical activities, spend less time reading and working and see a work of violence that can affect their own feelings of security.

Finally, comercial advertisement on TV can be a brain washing. Psychologically, constant show of advertisement will shape one’s image about one product. No wonder people are easier to remember the motto or slogan of one advertisement than to retrieve information that they have learned.

In short, TV will be a kind of monster can conquer one’s mind and attitude.


Cigarette smokers are said to have chance of getting various fatal diseases. But I think that other people’s tobacco smoke seems to increase the chances of non-smokers getting a wide range of cancers.

First , although passive smokers inhale less tobacco smoke, the researchers point out that the smoke they breathe in is richer in many toxic chemicals. There is an example, three times as much as benzo-apyrene, six times as much loluene and more than 50 times as much dimenthyl nitrosamine. Of course  these substances  will harm our body in the long run.

Second , the recent research reported that the risk of getting cancers not normally associated with smoking also rose among passive smokers. The risk of  leukaemia rose 6 – 8 times and the risk of cervical cancer increased 3 – 4 times.

Third , past studies have found that by product of cigarette smoke such as coinine and thiocynate, turn up in the blood, urine and saliva of non –smoking adults, children and fetuses that have been exposed to smokers.  These substances are the main  causes of various cancers.

In short , the effects of exposure to the cigarette smoking of others are greater than has been previously suspected. That is why passive smokers  have more chances of contracting cancer than people with no such expose.


What is a factual description?
A factual description describes a particular, place or thing. Its purpose is to tell about the subject by describing its features without including personal opinions. A factual description differs from an information report because it describes a specific subject rather than a general group.

Examples of factual description texts include:
1. Descriptions of a particular building
2. Descriptions of a specific animal
3. Descriptions of a particular place.
4. Descriptions of a specific person.

Features of A Factual Description

Constructing features of a factual description
A typical description has an opening paragraph including the subject of the description, followed by a series of paragraphs each  describing one feature of the subject. There can also be a final concluding section that signals the end of the description.

Grammatical features of a factual description
Factual description usually include the following grammatical features:
1. verbs in the present tense
2. adjectives to describe the features of the subject
3. topic sentences to begin paragraphs and organise  the various aspects of description.

The factual description scaffold:
1. A general opening statement in the first paragraph
a. This statement introduces the subject of the description to the audience.
b. It can give the audience brief details about the when, where, who,or what of the subject.

2. A series of paragraphs about the subject:
a. Each paragraph usually begins with a topic sentence.
b. The topic sentence previews the details that  will be contained in the remainder of the paragraph.
c. Each paragraph should describe one feature of the subject.
d. These paragraphs build the description of the subject.
3. A conclusion paragraph ( optional )
The concluding pargraph signals the end of the text.


Explanation Text

An explanation tells us how or why something happens. Explanation can be spoken or written and their purpose is to tell each step of the process     ( the how ) and to give reasons ( the why ) for it.

These must be cared of if you want to write in the form of Explanation :
1.How something occurs
2.Why something happened
3. Why things are alike or different.
4.How to solve a problem

Construction of Explanation Text
A written explanation usually has three steps : first, there is the general statement about the event or thing. The next follows a series of paragraphs that tells how  and why. The final step is a concluding paragraph.

Grammar :

1. timeless present tense

2. adverb clause of reason

3. adverb clause of result


Reasons for New South Wales being chosen for the colony

There are several reasons for the British choosing New South Wales as the place to send convicts.

Firstly, Britain could no longer send convicts to America. This was because the Americans revolved against the British in 1776 and refused to take any more convicts.

Secondly, NSW was a long way from Britain, therefore, convicts would find it hard to escape and return home.

Another reason for choosing NSW was that it might make a good trading post and naval base. Britain’s strength came from its navy and trading empire; consequently it was continually looking for ways to keep power.

Finally, Sir Joseph banks contributed to the choise of NSW. Banks had traveled with Captain Cook and was highly respected so he was able to convince many people to choose NSW.

It can be seen that there were a number of reasons for British choosing NSW as the place to establish a convict colony in 1788.


How does the body react to heat?

When the human body is exposed to very hot conditions one result can be heatstroke. This is often the case for athletes and people who have to work outside in summer.

Heatstroke is a sudden, uncontrolled rise in body temperature. It is a reaction that results  from human body no being able to replace fluid lost through perspiration. If the lost fluids are not replaced then dehydration occurs and this leads to decrease in blood.

In this situation the body must decide whether to give the blood to the main organs  ( livers, kidneys, brain, and so on ) or to the skin. Because the main organs are more important, they will receive the blood. Also , as a consequence of the drop in the fluids, the body loses its ability to sweat. The situation become critical. The body now can not produce sweat; therefore it cannot cool itself. Excess heat cannot be released through the skin as a result of the loss of blood supply to the part of the body. The lack of blood supply and the inability to sweat together cause the body overheat.

Heatstroke can cause permanent injury if not treated properly. It is one way of how body can react to heat.


A tsunami is a very large sea wave that is generated by a disturbance  along the ocean floor. This disturbance can be an earthquake, a landslide, or a volcanic eruption. A tsunami is undetectable far out in the ocean, but once it reaches shallow water, this fast wave grows very fast.

Tsunami occur when a major fault under the ocean floor suddenly slips. The displaced rocks push pushes water above it like a giant paddle, producing powerful water waves at the ocean  surface. The ocean waves  spread out from the vicinity of the earthquake source and  move across the ocean until they reach the coastline, where  their height increases as they reach continental shelf , the path of the earth’s crust that slopes or rises from the ocean floor up to the land.

Tsunami wash ashore with often disastrous effects such as severe, flooding, loss of lives due to drowning and damage to property


Bees are useful insects. There are about 20,000 kinds  of  bees, but only honey bees  make honey. Honey bees live in groups called colonies. Each colony has one female queen bee, ten of thousands or workers , and a few hundred  male bees or drones. Honey bees lives in hives. Inside their hive, the bees make a honey comb of wax. The honey comb is a kind of bee apartment building full of six –sided room s in which the bees raises young and store food.

The queen bee lays thousands of eggs. Worms look like larvae hatch from eggs. Each larva becomes a pupa, which looks partly like larva and partly like an adult bee. Worker bees feed the young , clean, guard the hive, and fly to and from flowers. They collect tiny grains of pollen and a sweet liquid called nectar for food. The pollen is food for young bees. Worker bees use the nectar to make honey. Without bees bringing pollen from flower to  flower, many plants can’t make seeds.



->To tell other people about something that has happened in your life.

->To tell about what you did  at the weekend.

->It might be about exciting things that happened when you were on holidays last year.

->Speaking or writing about past events is called a recount.
-> In short a recount is a piece of text that retells past events past events, usually in the order in which they happened. The purpose of a recount is to give the audience a description of what occurred and when it occurred.
Some examples of recount text types are:
=>Newspaper reports
=>Television interviews
=>Eyewitness accounts

Construction of Recount
The recount text types retell , past events, usually in the order which they happened. The steps for constructing written recount are:
a. The first paragraph that gives background information about a who, what, where and when ( called an orientation )
b. A  series of paragraphs that retell the events in the order in which they happened.
c. A concluding paragraph ( not always necessary )

Language of Recounts

The language features usually found in a recount are :

a. Proper noun to identify those involved in the text.
b. Descriptive words to give details about who, what, when, where, how.
c. The use of the past tense to re tell the events.
d. Words that show the order of events ( for example , first, next, then )


There are many beautiful plants and flowers in Bobo’s garden and he was very proud of them, and he loves watering them every afternoon.

One day Bobo was watering his plants when suddenly the water from the hose stopped flowing. Bobo was surprised and when he looked around, he saw Giga standing on the hose. Accidentally Giga had stepped on the hose and it broke.

Bobo was upset and Giga felt sorry, then she went to a small pond near the garden, filled her  trunk with water and came back. She sprayed Bobo’s garden with water from her trunk. Bobo was happy and forgave Giga. Giga promised to give Bobo a new watering hose


Rachel’s mother, Ruth, has a busy and interesting life. Ruth usually wakes up at 6:30 A.M. then she likes to lie in the bed for awhile and drink coffee. After about half an hour, she likes to get up and go to work on the trees  and flowers around the apartment. At about 8:00 she goes back inside and take a shower. Then she dresses, and she goes to exercise with her friends. When she finishes her exercises, she goes shopping. She comes home at around 10:30, cleans the house and cooks some lunch. From 12:00 to 12:30, she eats lunch with her husband, Shuka. From then until 7:30, she teaches piano, organ, and accordion to her students. When  she finishes, she eats, she eats dinner with her husband. In the evening she likes to play cards or go dance. At about 11:30, she and her husband usually go to sleep.


This week I am going to go to New York City. On Saturday morning, I am going to see the statue of Liberty. Next, I am going to to visit the United Nations. I want to talk with one of my friends from Burma, who is in the Burmese delegation. In the afternoon, I am going to shop on fifth Avenue. I will buy some shoes for my father, a bag for my mother and a wallet for my younger brother. In the evening, I really want to go to a baseball game in Yankee Stadium, between the Yankees and the Baltimore Orioles. On Sunday, I am going to spend the morning in the Center park, and the afternoon in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Before I leave, I will send postcards to all of my friends in Rangoon. At about 5:00 P.M I am going to to return to Hartford.

Eyewitness Accounts

An eyewitness account is to one example of a recount. The eyewitness may be called on to give details about an event such as a car accident, an explosion or a fight. The audience may be a police officers, readers of a newspaper or viewers of a TV news report. The purpose of the account is to provide details about the event in the order in which they occurred.


I was walking along main street about 10 a.m, when I saw this blue car stop outside the bank. Next thing I saw this man with a mask on. He jumped out of the car and ran into the bank then waked up to the door of the bank and look in. By this time the robber had everyone in the bank lying on the floor. At this point I hurried to the telephone box in the Park road and called the police.

Ladies and gentlement

Thank you for presenting me with the award for best special effect at this year’s golden Awards.

When I began in the movies back in the early 1950s we had none of the technology that you have today. In my first movie, The Lizard That Ate Mexico, I had to wear a black rubber suit to play the lizard. A magnifying glass was  placed in front of the camera to make the lizard look larger. After two hours in the rubber suit, under the studio lights, I was cooked.

My next role was in Killer Cucumber. At this time we were making films in color

r. The director had me wear a green rubber suit. Thankfully, the studio was air conditioned and I could concentrate more on being a killer cucumber rather than on preventing heatstroke.

By 1960 I was given my first speaking role. Before that I only got to crawl around the stage in rubber suits and grunt. I said.’Hey, get off my wave,’ in Teenage Surf Zombies. That Sceene was not filmed on a beach but in a studio that had a picture of a wave in the background and a stagehand who sprayed water in my face to make it look as though I was surfing. Those were the days.

Movie making today can use computer-generated images and all sorts of high-tech effects. Still, I prefer the good old-fashioned way of doing things. I am glad you liked my part as the flying cow in Twister and I thank you for coming to the hospital to give me this award.

Words Showing Order

One of the language features of recounts is the use of words that show the order in which the events in the text happened.

first ( second, third)               next

when                                       now

then                                         soon after

at this point                            lastly

at this time                             before that

after a while                           afterwards

at this moment                       following that